Tuesday, January 10, 2017

Salmon Research

So because our class is focusing on salmon for the moment I am going to post a bunch of salmon related info here.

Photography by Tina Winterlik aka Zipolita © 2017

There's some interesting info on this Wikipedia page about salmon clothing.

Fish skin parka (qasperrluk in Yup'ik; derived from qaspeq "parka cover kuspuk" and the postbase -rrluk "N that has departed from its natural state (often, though not always, with an undesirable connotation)", amirag in Cup'ig) is a kind of fish-skin clothing (amiragglugaq) also that could serve as a tent.[2][20] Fish skin parkas in the past were worn by both men and women when hunting and traveling. In winter they were worn over a fur parka just as cloth covers have been in more recent times.[8] A Yukon fish skin parka made of dog salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) skin.[21] Nunivaarmiut men wore parkas made of silver salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) skin, while those of women were made of salmon trout (charr) (Salvelinus malma) skin and often had a white fox ruff on the hood.[8] The Nunivaarmiut Cup'ig did not prepare their own fish skins for parkas, but bought them, already prepared, from Yup'ik people on the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers. These imported skins had been stretched, smoke-dried, and scaled.[8]

Mitten (aliiman, aliuman, aritvak, kauman in Yup'ik, aritvag in Cup'ig). Child's mitten of any sort is aritvacuar or aritvacuarar (in Cup'ig). Long waterproof dehaired sealskin or fish-skin (salmon-skin)[18] mitten is (arilluk sg arilluuk dual arilluut pl, arin in Yup'ik, arillugar in Cup'ig). Fish skin mittens with grass liners used for kayak travel during spring in bad weather.[41] Man's short skin mitten used when going on a kayak trip is arikarer (in Cup'ig).

Fish-skin boots (amirak ~ amiraq sg amiriik dual in Yup'ik and Cup'ik) are waterproof skin boot made of fish skin. In the past fish-skin boots were made with depilated soles of bearded seal, ankle straps, and a casing sewb to the upper edge of the leg. Large salmon skins were prepared for boots by sewing up the fin holes. A round needle was used because a triangular needle would split the skin.[6][20]

Check out these coats. So beautiful.

Here's a bunch of Important links about how salmon are in danger.


Get ready to puke!!

What small minds!!







Restore the Balance

Haida Gwaii: Restoring the Balance from Marchfelder on Vimeo.


The Kalapuyas were hunters and gatherers. Women did most of the gathering, while men were the hunters. Salmon, trout, and eels were part of their diet as were birds, small game, deer, bear, and elk. Grasshoppers and a type of caterpillar were considered delicacies. Other food items included hazel nuts, berries, tarweed seeds, and wapato. (Zenk, page 547-548)

Camas root was the Kalapuyas' most abundant and important staple. This "bulbous root plant resembles an onion in shape and consistency but is considerably more bland in taste," according to "Cooking up Camas," an article in Historic Marion. A member of the lily family, "camassia quamash" still grows in the Willamette Valley; it is known for its beautiful blue spring time blooms.

Kalapuya women dug the camas with forked wooden sticks and then roasted and dried the root in pit-ovens. This mixture was also pressed into cakes or loaves for later use as food or as a valuable trade item.  


"The Songhees or Songish, also known as the Lekwungen or Lekungen, are an indigenous North American Coast Salish people who reside on southeastern Vancouver Island, British Columbia in the Greater Victoria area. Their government is the Songhees First Nation, a member of the Te'mexw Treaty Association and the Naut'sa Mawt Tribal Council. Their traditional language is Lekwungen, a dialect of the North Straits Salish language.

There is evidence of a fortified village existing at Finlayson Point in Beacon Hill Park prior to the arrival of Europeans in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The Songhees' traditional foods included salmon, shellfish, whale, deer, duck, berries, camas root, and herbs. The Coast Salish traditionally lived in bighouses, which were large rectangular communal houses of cedar planks, adorned with carved and jointed totem posts.[1]"

Douglas Treaties

Further information: Douglas Treaties
Sir James Douglas, governor of Vancouver Island negotiated a treaty with the Songhees in 1850. Much of the traditional territory of the Songhees now forms the core of the urbanized area of Victoria and surrounding municipalities. The development of British Columbia's capital city caused considerable disruption to the Songhees' traditional economy and livelihood.
Recently the Songhees considered that the government of British Columbia had failed to honour the 1850 treaty and commenced a legal action against the province and the government of Canada for redress. A settlement of the action was announced in November 2006 by Songhees Chief Robert Sam, the federal Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development Jim Prentice and the provincial Minister of Aboriginal Relations and Reconciliation, Mike de Jong.

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